Dualities, Symmetries and Unbroken Phases in String Theory Probing the Composite Nature of the String
Sammanfattning: The thesis treats aspects of string/M-theory in anti-de Sitter spacetimes and their supersymmetric completions. By applying the AdS/CFT correspondence, as well as models of spin chains and singletons, we try to attain a better understanding of the underlying symmetries and the unbroken phases of string/M-theory. Tensionless string/M-theory in anti-de Sitter spacetime is argued to imply a higher spin gauge symmetry enhancement and to be described by gauged sigma models of multi-singletons as well as by closed singleton strings. Vasiliev's weakly projected equations of symmetric massless higher spin gauge fields in the vector oscillator formulation is shown to follow from a deformation of the singleton model. Various four dimensional minimal as well as non-minimal supersymmetric higher spin gauge theories in the spinor formulation are examined. The minimal higher spin gauge theory based on the symmetry algebra hs(1|4) is elaborated on in an N=1 superspace, illustrating the remarkable fact that the choice of base manifold is not fixed in unfolded dynamics. The importance of the representations saturating the unitarity bounds in anti-de Sitter spacetime is stressed throughout the thesis, with particular emphasis on the singleton and the massless representations. Singletons, and hence massless states, are shown to appear as bound states on the string or p-brane and are localized at cusps. Furthermore, we examine semiclassical string solutions in Type IIB String Theory in AdS(5) x S(5) and their boundary duals in N=4 Super Yang-Mills Theory in d=4 which are constituted out of thermodynamic composite operators. By using integrable spin chain techniques and Bäcklund transformations in the field theory and in the string theory, respectively, the one-loop anomalous dimensions as well as the tower of conserved charges of the composite operators are shown to be in agreement with the energies and the tower of conserved charges associated with the dual string states.
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