Participation in occupational therapy in psychiatric care
Sammanfattning: One of the most important challenges of health and medical care is to strength the role of the patient in the treatment. In psychiatric care the patient must be seen as a resource and should be given the opportunity to participate in his treatment. The overall aim of the thesis was to investigate and describe how patients in psychiatric care perceive participation, and how existing assessments support participation.Study I describes how patients in psychiatric institutional care perceived their opportunities to be active and to participate in their own treatment. The ICF (International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health) inspired the study. By means of a questionnaire, 61 patients reported their opinions of the value of received care, highlighting concepts such as activity and participation. Ten of those patients were then selected for a semi-structured interview. The study showed that patients who were treated according to compulsory care (LPT) were generally more dissatisfied with their opportunities to be active and participate in their own care than patients treated according to the law of health and medical care (HSL). Younger patients in particular were more dissatisfied. Some important factors in the environment were continuity and reception from the staff. Facilitating factors for activity and participation were agreement between patient and staff about the treatment plan, discussions about expectations, and creating conditions for engagement in activities and or responsibility.Study II investigates if there is harmony between the CPRS-S-A (Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale-Self-Assessment), the OCAIRS–S (Occupational Circumstances Interview and Rating Scale) and the OSA (Occupational Self Assessment), and if they can replace each other when the occupational therapist collects information about the patient. Another aim was to investigate how occupational therapist uses the collected information in the treatment plan process. Fourteen patients with depression disorders took part in the study. The study showed that even if the symptoms of the disease were improved at the end of the treatment period the patients still had problems with occupational performance, reduced self-confidence and the structure of their day. Consequently the assessments cannot replace each other. The study emphasized the importance of using both interview and self-assessments when collecting information about the patient, since these methods complement each other in identifying the needs and goals of the treatment. Many problems were related to the patient’s social environment but this was not reflected in the treatment plan; few goals were identified in this area.In conclusion, occupational therapists should use self-assessments and interviews in order to support the patient’s participation in psychiatric care. Furthermore, it is important to use assessments for both occupational performance and medical symptoms when identifying the patient’s needs and goals of treatment since there is a discrepancy between the two areas; symptoms are reduced earlier than perceived problems in occupational performance. Regardless of what kind of law the patient is treated under, all patients have the right to participate in their own treatment. This thesis also shows that the social environment is important in enabling the participation of patients in their psychiatric care.
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