Analytical vortex solutions to Navier-Stokes equation
Sammanfattning: Fluid dynamics considers the physics of liquids and gases. This is a branch of classical physics and is totally based on Newton's laws of motion. Nevertheless, the equation of fluid motion, Navier-Stokes equation, becomes very complicated to solve even for very simple configurations. This thesis treats mainly analytical vortex solutions to Navier-Stokes equations. Vorticity is usually concentrated to smaller regions of the flow, sometimes isolated objects, called vortices. If one are able to describe vortex structures exactly, important information about the flow properties are obtained.Initially, the modeling of a conical vortex geometry is considered. The results are compared with wind-tunnel measurements, which have been analyzed in detail. The conical vortex is a very interesting phenomenaon for building engineers because it is responsible for very low pressures on buildings with flat roofs. Secondly, a suggested analytical solution to Navier-Stokes equation for internal flows is presented. This is based on physical argumentation concerning the vorticity production at solid boundaries. Also, to obtain the desired result, Navier-Stokes equation is reformulated and integrated. In addition, a model for required information of vorticity production at boundaries is proposed.The last part of the thesis concerns the examples of vortex models in 2-D and 3-D. In both cases, analysis of the Navier-Stokes equation, leads to the opportunity to construct linear solutions. The 2-D studies are, by the use of diffusive elementary vortices, describing experimentally observed vortex statistics and turbulent energy spectrums in stratified systems and in soapfilms. Finally, in the 3-D analysis, three examples of recent experimentally observed vortex objects are reproduced theoretically. First, coherent structures in a pipe flow is modeled. These vortex structures in the pipe are of interest since they appear for Re in the range where transition to turbulence is expected. The second example considers the motion in a viscous vortex ring. The model, with diffusive properties, describes the experimentally measured velocity field as well as the turbulent energy spectrum. Finally, a streched spiral vortex is analysed. A rather general vortex model that has many degrees of freedom is proposed, which also may be applied in other configurations.
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