Transition Metal Mediated Transformations of Carboranes
Sammanfattning: This thesis describes the use of copper and palladium to mediate transformations of carboranes, especially p-carborane.1-(1-p-carboranyl)-N-methyl-N-(2-butyl)-3-isoquinolinecarboxamide, a carborane containing analogue of the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) ligand PK11195, has been synthesised. A key step in the reaction is the copper (I) mediated coupling of p-carborane with ethyl 1-bromo-isoquinoline-3-carboxylate. p-Carborane has been arylated on the 2-B-atom in high yields, using the Suzuki–Miyaura reaction. Thus the reaction between 2-I-p-carborane and various arylboronic acids [1-naphthyl-, phenyl-, 4-MeO-C6H4-, 3-CH3CONH-C6H4-, 4-NC-C6H4-, 3-NO2-C6H4-], gave the corresponding 2-aryl-p-carboranes in DME solution when reacted in the presence of cesium fluoride and the catalytic Pd2(dba)3–dppb system. Under the same conditions, the boron-boron bond forming reaction of two p-carboranylboronic esters (2-[(pinacolato)boron]-p-carborane and 2-[(neopentyl glycolato)boron]-p-carborane) was also shown feasible.p-Carborane has been vinylated on the 2-B-atom in high yields by use of the Heck reaction. The coupling between 2-I-p-carborane and various styrenes [4-H-, 4-C6H4-, 4-Cl , 4-Br-, 4-NO2-, 4-CH3O- and 4 CH3 ] resulted in the formation of the correspondingtrans-β-(2-B-p-carboranyl) styrene in DMF solution when reacted in the presence of silver phosphate and the palladacycle Herrmann´s catalyst. The reaction was shown to proceed at higher rate with electron rich than with electron deficient olefins.The feasibility of palladium-catalysed isotopic exchange of an iodinated closo-carborane with a radioisotope of iodine has been studied. 2-I-p-carborane was selected as a model compound. It was shown, that such isotopic exchange is possible and provides a high yield (83 ± 4.2 %) during 40 min long reaction. The reaction conditions were optimised, and it was demonstrated that presence of the tetra n-butylammonium hydrogensulphate is important in order to stabilise catalyst and provide reproducibility of labelling. In this work we have modified the methodology and extended the application to a wider range of iodinated carboranes. By the use of Herrmann’s catalyst in toluene at 100 °C this [125I]-iodide labelling could be improved and extended. 2-I-p- 9-I-m-, 9-I-o-, 3-I-o-carborane, 1-phenyl-3-I-o-carborane and 1,2-diphenyl-3-I-o-carborane could be [125I]-iodide labelled in high to excellent yields within 5 minutes.This reported palladium catalyzed radio-iodination of the uncharged closo-carboranes might find use in pharmacokinetic studies of carborane derivatives.
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