Utmaningar och bemötande i flyktingmottagandet
Sammanfattning: Aim: The overall aim of this thesis is to describe the results of a survey of the health situation of newly-arrived refugees attending a course in Swedish for Immigrants (SFI) (study I) and elucidate the self-rated health-related quality of life that Arabic-speaking participants in a spe-cific health-promoting group activity (Health School) report before, immediately after and at a six-month follow-up of that activity (study II). Design, method, sample: The sample in study I comprised newly-arrived Arabic-speaking refugees living in the Malmö district of Fosie who were attending a SFI course. A total of 67 persons participated, 52 per cent men, 48 per cent women. Data were collected with the aid of a questionnaire with both open-ended and closed alternative responses about family and relatives, networks and services, Swedish language lessons and participation, introduction and needs, sleep and recovery. In study II the sample comprised newly-arrived Arabic-speaking refu-gees who attended a seven-week Health School as a part of their intro-ductory planning. The study was based on qualitative data obtained by participatory observation and oral group evaluations with 65 course participants. In addition, we used a questionnaire with closed response alternatives for self-rating health-related quality of life, including sleep and recovery. The questionnaire was administered at the beginning and end of the group activity as well as six months after the end. This sam-ple comprised 39 participants in the group activity who responded to the questionnaire on all three occasions. Furthermore, the thesis contains an article describing the Health School group activity/method, its background and theoretical links, as well as the collaborative process that developed between professionals and re-cipients. Results: The respondents in study I reported a high frequency of sleep- and fatigue-related complaints. Sleep disturbances on the equivalent of every other day were reported by 68 per cent and somewhat fewer, 43 per cent, reported regular problems with drowsiness, for instance drop-ping off during the day. Criteria for clinical insomnia were met by 41 per cent (36 per cent of the men, 50 per cent of the women), based on the combination of sleep disturbance and complaints of fatigue at least every other day. In addition, over 80 per cent of the sample experienced great anxiety about their family or other relatives in their home country. Many felt isolated and lonely, found it hard to get in touch with associations, have access to places for cultural activities, practicing religion and participating in sports. Many also experienced difficulties in gaining access to health care and dental care. In the educational situation (SFI), more than half had great difficulty in understanding what the teacher said and 68 per cent found it hard to keep up with the pace of the lessons. More than 64 per cent reported difficulties with concentration, problems with understanding homework and being able to do homework in a calm environment. Many respondents were uncertain about the introductory plan and roughly half had wanted their introductory officer to be more helpful in contacts with health care, including doctors, and housing matters. The qualitative part of study II, which aimed to elucidate the most im-portant issues according to the participants, gave rise to four categories: 1) More in-depth issues concerning the content of the group activi-ty/Health School, 2) Comments on the form and structure of the group activity/Health School, 3) Which of the participants’ “needs” were cov-ered by and which were missing, and 4) What the participants wanted to convey to administrators, decision-makers and politicians. The quantitative follow-up study showed that when the group activity started, the participants experienced a high degree of problems with sleep and concentration. Such problems were considerably less frequent at the end of the activity and this change persisted six months later. Moreover, the sleep disturbances were related both to the five variables of the health-related quality of life (mobility, activity, self-care, pain and anxiety/depression) and to the perception of general health. The variables pain and anxiety/depression showed significant improvements at the end of the activity as well as six months later. Men as well as women rated their general health as significantly improved at both follow-ups compared with baseline; the change was greatest for women. Conclusions: Taken together, the results show that in terms of self-rated health, the studied population has a high degree of problems with physical and mental ill-health. These problems are closely related to problems with sleep and concentration, besides having consequences for the newly-arrived persons’ daily activities and for settling in the host country. A great need of assistance from health care emerges, as well as a lack of trust in this, partly due to difficulty of access and a lack of professional interpreters. At the same time, the findings in this thesis show that the reception sys-tem with evidence-based inputs can achieve considerable positive changes for newly-arrived refugees. The self-rated health-related quality of life for participants in the group activity/Health School showed that for the group as a whole, the studied aspects had improved significantly both by the end of the activity and at the six-month follow-up. Proper actual knowledge about self-care and the Swedish health care system had increased significantly by the end of the activity. These effects can also have positive consequences for the next generation and others close to the participant. The group activity needs to be tested with other language groups of newly-arrived in order to warrant general conclusions.
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