Topics in geometry, analysis and inverse problems

Detta är en avhandling från Matematiska institutionen

Sammanfattning: The thesis consists of three independent parts.Part I: Polynomial amoebasWe study the amoeba of a polynomial, as de ned by Gelfand, Kapranov and Zelevinsky. A central role in the treatment is played by a certain convex function which is linear in each complement component of the amoeba, which we call the Ronkin function. This function is used in two di erent ways. First, we use it to construct a polyhedral complex, which we call a spine, approximating the amoeba. Second, the Monge-Ampere measure of the Ronkin function has interesting properties which we explore. This measure can be used to derive an upper bound on the area of an amoeba in two dimensions. We also obtain results on the number of complement components of an amoeba, and consider possible extensions of the theory to varieties of codimension higher than 1.Part II: Differential equations in the complex planeWe consider polynomials in one complex variable arising as eigenfunctions of certain differential operators, and obtain results on the distribution of their zeros. We show that in the limit when the degree of the polynomial approaches innity, its zeros are distributed according to a certain probability measure. This measure has its support on the union of nitely many curve segments, and can be characterized by a simple condition on its Cauchy transform.Part III: Radon transforms and tomographyThis part is concerned with different weighted Radon transforms in two dimensions, in particular the problem of inverting such transforms. We obtain stability results of this inverse problem for rather general classes of weights, including weights of attenuation type with data acquisition limited to a 180 degrees range of angles. We also derive an inversion formula for the exponential Radon transform, with the same restriction on the angle.