Methods for Analysis of Disease Associated Genomic Sequence Variation

Detta är en avhandling från Uppsala : Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis

Sammanfattning: In Molecular Medicine a wide range of methods are applied to analyze the genome to find genetic predictors of human disease. Apart from predisposing disease, genetic variations may also serve as genetic markers in the search for factors underlying complex diseases. Additionally, they provide a means to distinguish between species, analyze evolutionary relationships and subdivide species into strains. The development and improvement of laboratory techniques and computational methods was a spin-off effect of the Human Genome Project. The same techniques for analyzing genomic sequence variations may be used independent of organism or source of DNA or RNA. In this thesis, methods for high-throughput analysis of sequence variations were developed, evaluated and applied. The performance of several genotyping assays were investigated prior to genotyping 4000 samples in a co-operative genetic epidemiological study. Sequence variations in the estrogen receptor alpha gene were found to be associated with an increased risk of breast and endometrial cancer in Swedish women.Whole genome amplification (WGA) enables large scale genetic analysis of sparse amounts of biobanked DNA samples. The performance of two WGA methods was evaluated using four-color minisequencing on tag-arrays. Our in-house developed assay and “array of arrays” format allow up to 80 samples to be analyzed in parallel on a single microscope slide. Multiple displacement amplification by the ?29 DNA polymerase gave essentially identical genotyping results as genomic DNA. To facilitate accurate method comparisons, a cluster quality assessment approach was established and applied to assess the performance of four commercially available DNA polymerases in the tag-array minisequencing assay. A microarray method for genotyping human group A rotavirus (HRV) was developed and applied to an epidemiological survey of infectious HRV strains in Nicaragua. The method combines specific capture of amplified viral sequences on microarrays with genotype-specific DNA-polymerase mediated extension of capture oligonucleotides with fluorescent dNTPs.