Samtal med den värdefulla naturen : Ett studium av miljöetiken hos Knud Lõgstrup, Holmes Rolston III och Hans Jonas
Sammanfattning: This thesis has three aims. One aim is to explain and analyse the environmental ethics of Rolston, Jonas and Lögstrup. A second aim is to compare and criticize their environmental ethics. A third aim is to put forward a personal proposal for an acceptable formulation of a weakly biocentrical environmental ethic.The main question in the thesis is how one can formulate an environmental ethic that strives for a tenable approach vis-á-vis nature and at the same time does not dethrone human dignity. In order to obtain a tenable environmental ethic four conditions have been propounded. The first is a prioritizing condition, which means that a tenable environmental ethic should be able to prioritize among nature's values and differentiate what is important and unimportant in nature. The second condition is a consistency condition, which means that one must recognize the scientific results within one's own area. A third condition is an experience condition, which means that in addition to scientific experiences one must be able to include the experiences of nature's values that a science-based perception of reality is not capable of describing. Lastly there is a human dignity condition, which means that nature's values may not be gained at the expense of human dignity.In the thesis it is argued that a weakly biocentric environmental ethic best fulfils the four conditions. This means that, besides man, nature and other living beings can have intrinsic value, but that man alone has an absolute value. This means that the value is independent of a person's qualities and abilities. In the thesis it is argued that an environmental ethic in its perception of reality can contain scientific facts at the same time as it can contain everyday more direct experiences. With support from Lögstrup it is argued that we can find a way to understanding ingenious and senserich nature pertaining to the senses. It is argued that we have experience that nature meets us not only as an environmental problem but also as a delightful grace of creation. It is further argued in the thesis that there are objective values in nature that it is possible to gain knowledge about and that this is best expressed in the form of a deontological action ethic. The environmental ethic that is argued for has its prerequisite in the dialogue that nature through the immediate sensory impressions and the laws that apply in nature calls us to.
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