Effects of Meditation on Respiration and the Temporal Lobes : An Exploratory and Meta-Analytic Study
Sammanfattning: Two assertions made by the Eastern meditation traditions were investigated: (a) breath regulation is a prerequisite for attaining altered states of consciousness, (b) meditation leads to changes in cognitive processes and in personality. A deconditioning process was conceptualized involving the temporal lobes and the amygdala. Analyses of (a) the effects of carbon dioxide (CO2) inhalation and (b) temporal lobe stimulation, (c) the experiential phenomena during meditation, and eight respiratory parameters during meditation are reviewed. The results show that ventilation decreased, metabolism decreased, PCO2 increased, CO2 sensitivity decreased, and apnea occurred frequently during meditation. Psychological effects comprised positive and adverse effects influencing cognitive processes and personality. The assertions receive partial support. Implications and suggestions for future research are listed.
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