Cross-regulation between TGFβ/BMP Signalling and the metabolic LKB1 pathway

Detta är en avhandling från Uppsala : Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis

Sammanfattning: Cell signalling determines physiological responses to many cellular stimuli and environmental changes. The transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ)/bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signalling pathways begin by binding of ligand to the heterodimeric receptor complex, followed by activation of Smads that translocate to the nucleus to regulate transcription of genes that further mediate cellular physiology. The TGFβ/BMP pathways are very important for proper tissue development and homeostasis, thus precise spatial and temporal regulation of the signalling pathway is required and achieved by many positive and negative signalling regulators.This thesis work identified the liver kinase B1 (LKB1) pathway as a negative regulator of TGFβ/BMP signalling pathways. In the first paper, we established LKB1 as a negative regulator of TGFβ signalling and TGFβ-induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). LKB1 impairs Smad4 binding capacity to DNA leading to suppressed TGFβ-activated gene transcription. The second paper describes further the mechanism of LKB1 negative regulation on BMP signalling, by mediating BMP type I receptor degradation resulting in inhibition of BMP-induced cell differentiation.Downstream of LKB1, salt inducible kinase 1 (SIK1) is a TGFβ target gene and its expression is up-regulated by Smad2/3/4-mediated gene transcription. The third paper elucidates the mechanism of SIK1 transcriptional induction via an enhancer element located 3’ of the gene and SIK1-mediated type I TGFβ receptor degradation, which requires the activity of Smad7 and of the Smurf2 ubiquitin ligase.The fourth manuscript finds sucrose non-fermenting (SNF) 1-like kinase 2 (NUAK2) as another TGFβ target gene and its up-regulation results in modification of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway that controls protein synthesis. NUAK2 cooperates with LKB1 leading to Raptor phosphorylation and inhibition of mTOR-mediated protein synthesis. Collectively, this thesis work has provided a functional link between two important signalling pathways, the metabolic LKB1 pathway and TGFβ/BMP pathway.