Experimental and theoretical study of carbides in the Co-Cr-C system Structure, alloying and stability
Sammanfattning: The research presented in this thesis explores the structure, alloying and stability of the carbides in the Co-Cr-C system by using the CALPHAD approach supported by experimental measurements and ab initio calculations.WC-Co based cemented carbide materials consist of hard WC grains and a ductile Co-based binder. Cr is usually added to cemented carbides for the purpose of reducing grain growth during sintering or to increase corrosion resistance. The Co-Cr-C system is highly relevant for Cr-containing cemented carbides. For example, it determines the allowable C-content interval in the quaternary W-Co-Cr-C system with respect to the formation of unwanted Cr-based carbides.The CALPHAD method is based on critical assessment of model parameters constituting phenomenological expressions of the Gibbs energy and its derivatives, e.g. enthalpy, entropy and heat capacity. A thermodynamic assessment based on the CALPHAD method relies heavily on the available experimental or ab initio calculated information.The crystal structures of Cr23C6 and Cr3C2 have previously been accurately determined. However, various authors reported different crystal structures for the Cr7C3 carbide. A combined experimental and ab initio investigation of the crystal structure of Cr7C3 and M7C3 (M=Co,Cr) was thus performed. Furthermore, the stabilities of all end-member compounds of the mixed carbide at 0 K weredetermined by ab initio calculations.Available experimental information on phase equilibria with carbides in the Co-Cr-C system was found to be insufficient to describe all the features in the phase diagram. Therefore, the liquid + M23C6 + M7C3 and M7C3 + M3C2 + graphite equilibria (M=Co,Cr) were investigated experimentally with focus on the solubility of Co in the M23C6, M7C3 and M3C2 carbides.Finally, a reassessment of the thermodynamic description of the Co-Cr-C system was performed, which resulted in a set of thermodynamic models and parameters that accurately describe all of the considered information.Applied experimental methods and theoretical models are explained throughout the thesis. Important examples from the appended papers are also given.
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