Technical Aspects of Laparoscopic Liver Resection. An Experimental Study

Detta är en avhandling från Uppsala : Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis

Sammanfattning: Various techniques are used to transect the liver. With increase in laparoscopic liver resections (LLR), it is of even more interest to develop surgical techniques to minimize bleeding and the risk for gas embolism during transection. Instrument like argon enhanced coagulator provides good hemostasis but increases the danger of gas embolism. The CO2 pneumoperitoneum that is routinely used in most types of laparoscopic surgery can be modified by the use of different gas pressure. It can be assumed that different pressure influences bleeding but also the risk for gas embolism.In presented porcine studies, three instrumental combinations have been studied. In study I sixteen piglets were randomized to LLR with either the cavitron ultrasonic aspirator (CUSA™) in combination with vessels sealing system (Ligasure™) or with CUSA™ and ultrascision scissors (Autosonix™), with the endpoints of intra-operative bleeding and gas embolism.  In study IV sixteen piglets were randomized to LLR either with staple device (Endo-GIA™) or the Ligasure™ - CUSA™ combination with same primary endpoints and additionally secondary endpoints of effect on gas-exchange, systemic- and pulmonary hemodynamic.Focusing on intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) in study II, sixteen piglets were randomized to LLR with an IAP of either 8 or 16 mmHg.  Primary endpoints were bleeding and gas embolism and secondary endpoints, effect on gas-exchange, systemic- and pulmonary hemodynamic.In study III effect of argon gas was tested during LLR. Sixteen piglets were randomized to either argon pneumoperitoneum or CO2 pneumoperitoneum. Primary endpoints were effect on gas-exchange, systemic- and pulmonary hemodynamic.In presented studies, we tested efficacy and safety of different techniques for LLR. CUSA™ can be used in combination with either Ligasure™ or Autosonix™. However, Ligasure™ reduces the amount of bleeding. The recent introduction of staplers seems promising with a further reduction in bleeding, gas embolism, and operating time. The IAP influences both the amount of bleeding as well as gas embolism. It seems reasonable to use a higher IAP to decrease bleeding with caution and with close monitoring for gas embolism. Argon gas embolism gives more extensive effect on gas-exchange and hemodynamic and should probably be avoided in this type of surgery.