Redskap för lärande? : Återkoppling i samhällskunskap på gymnasiet
Sammanfattning: This dissertation explores written and oral feedback in different contexts. The study is based on interviews with five Swedish teachers in Civics and on observations of their way of giving feedback in the classroom. Furthermore, teachers’ comments on the students’ written tasks were examined.Feedback from the teacher to the student has been classified into the categories: Focus on task, Focus on grade, Focus on learning process and Focus on self-regulation. According to previous research feedback with focus on process and self-regulation is the most powerful tool for enhancing learning. The result shows that the feedback which was given on written tests and written tasks was not favourable for enhancing learning. Feedback in a written log and during work in class was more effective. In the context where teacher gave oral feedback when giving back the written texts both grades and learning process appeared to be in focus.Activity theory has influenced the analysis of variation in feedback and of obstacles and possibilities for developing formative feedback. In order to explain the variation I discuss the form of the task, the nature of the subject and the fact that feedback is given in both a formative and a summative discourse.In the formative discourse, where the teacher acts as a promoter, I find good possibilities for developing formative feedback. Open tasks, feedback towards abilities and a direct relation between the student and the subject matter appeared in this discourse. A summative discourse, where examination and grades characterized the feedback, has been interpreted as an obstacle for development of a more formative practice. In that discourse the teacher acts as a mediator between the student and the subject matter.
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