Analytical Methods For Sports Drugs: Challenges and Approaches

Sammanfattning: Drugs used to enhance human performance in sport competitions are prohibited by the world anti-doping association (WADA). Biological samples from athletes are continuously tested for adverse analytical findings regarding the identity and/or quantity of the banned substances. The current thesis deals with the development of new analytical methods to determine the concentrations of certain drugs used by athletes and even by regular users for therapeutic purposes. The developed methods aim to analyze the contents of these drugs in the biological matrices; plasma, serum and saliva to provide a successful approach towards either doping detection or therapeutic monitoring. β-adrenergic blockers such as propranolol and metoprolol are used in sports to relief stress and as therapeutic agents in the treatment of hypertension. Both drugs are in chiral forms and available only as racemic mixtures. The different pharmacology of each enantiomer necessitates the monitoring of each enantiomer by stereoselective analytical technique such as chiral liquid chromatography for separation and mass spectrometry for selective detection. The Endogenous anabolic androgenic steroids (EAAS) on the other hand are only notoriously used in sports to increase muscle mass and strength. A method utilizing high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) coupled to ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) was developed for the simultaneous determination of EAAS and their conjugated metabolites to provide a better insight into the steroidal module of the athlete biological passport (ABP). Moreover, the steroidal profile was assessed in serum using the proposed method after the administration of Growth hormone injection as an approach toward the implementation of a new endocrinological module based on steroids biomarkers to hormone doping.  Biological samples contain many components that may interfere with the analytical measurements. Therefore, sample preparation methods were developed using solid phase extraction (SPE) and miniaturized techniques such as microextraction by packed sorbents (MEPS) for the purification and pre-concentration of analytes prior to LC/MS analysis.