Materials for future power sources
Sammanfattning: Proton exchange membrane fuel cells and lithium polymer batteries are important as future power sources in electronic devices, vehicles and stationary applications. The development of these power sources involves finding and characterising materials that are well suited r the application.The materials investigated in this thesis are the perfluorosulphonic ionomer NafionTM (DuPont) and metal oxides incorporated into the membrane form of this material. The ionomer is used as polymer electrolyte in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) and the metal oxides are used as cathode materials in lithium polymer batters (LPB).Crystallinity in cast Nafion films can be introduced by ion beam exposure or aging. Spectroscopic investigations of the crystallinity of the ionomer indicate that the crystalline regions contain less water than amorphous regions and this could in part explain the drying out of the polymer electrolyte membrane in a PEMFC.Spectroscopic results on the equilibrated water uptake and the state of water in thin cast ionomer films indicate that there is a full proton transfer from the sulphonic acid group in the ionomer when there is one water molecule per sulphonate group.The LPB cathode materials, lithium manganese oxide and lithium cobalt oxide, were incorporated in situ in Nafion membranes. Other manganese oxides and cobalt oxides were incorporated in situ inside the membrane. Ion-exchange experiments from HcoO2 to LiCoO2 within the membrane were also successful.Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction were used for the characterisation of the incorporated species and the Nafion film/membrane.
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