Studies on a Novel Powder Formulation for Nasal Drug Delivery
Sammanfattning: Nasal administration has potential for the treatment of indications requiring a fast onset of effect or for drugs with low oral bioavailability. Liquid nasal sprays are relatively common, but can be associated with suboptimal absorption from the nasal cavity; this thesis shows that nasal absorption can be significantly enhanced with a dry powder formulation.It was shown that interactive mixtures, consisting of fine drug particles adhered to the surface of mucoadhesive carrier particles, could be created in a particle size suitable for nasal administration. Sodium starch glycolate (SSG), a common tablet excipient, was used as carrier material. In vitro evaluation of the formulation indicated that the mucoadhesion of the carrier was unlikely to be affected by the addition of a drug. The powder formulation did not improve the in vitro transfer of dihydroergotamine across porcine nasal mucosa compared with a liquid formulation; however, the results were associated with methodological shortcomings. The binding of model substances to SSG and three other excipients was evaluated. Ion exchange interactions were for example detected between SSG and cationic drugs, but these interactions were most extensive at low salt concentrations and should unlikely affect in vivo bioavailability at physiological salt concentrations. Absorption of the peptide drug desmopressin from the SSG nasal formulation, from a novel sublingual tablet formulation and from a commercial nasal liquid spray was evaluated in a clinical trial. While no improvement over the liquid spray was seen with the sublingual tablet, plasma concentrations after the nasal powder formulation were three times higher than those after the liquid spray. All formulations were well accepted by the volunteers. The use of currently available mucoadhesive carrier particles in interactive mixtures offers potential for a new method of producing nasal powder formulations that should also be applicable to large scale production.
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