Control of DC voltage in Multi-Terminal HVDC Transmission (MTDC) Systems

Sammanfattning: With recent advances in power electronic technology, High-Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) transmission system has become an alternative for transmitting power especially over long distances. Multi-Terminal HVDC (MTDC) systems are proposed as HVDC systems with more than two terminals. These systems can be geographically wide. While in AC grids, frequency is a global variable, in MTDC systems, DC voltage can be considered as its dual. However, unlike frequency, DC voltage can not be equal across the MTDC system. Control of DC voltage in MTDC systems is one of the important challenges in MTDC systems. Since the dynamic of MTDC system is very fast, DC voltage control methods cannot rely only on remote information. Therefore, they can work based on either local information or a combination of local and remote information. In this thesis, first, the MTDC system is modeled. One of the models presented in this thesis considers only the DC grid, and effects of the AC grids are modeled with DC current sources, while in the other one, the connections of the DC grid to the AC grids are also considered. Next, the proposed methods in the literature for controlling the DC voltage are described and in addition to these methods, some control methods are proposed to control the DC voltage in MTDC system. These control methods include two groups. The first group (such as Multi-Agent Control methods) uses remote and local information, while the second group (such as Sliding Mode Control and H¥ control) uses local information.The proposed multi-agent control uses local information for immediate response, while uses remote information for a better fast response. Application of Multi-Agent Control systems leads to equal deviation of DC voltages from their reference values. Using remote information leads to better results comparing to the case only local information is used. Moreover, the proposed methods can also work in the absence of remote information. When AC grid is considered in the modeling, the MTDC system has anon-linear dynamic. Sliding Mode Control, a non-linear control method with high disturbance rejection capability, which is non-sensitive to the parameter variations, is applied to the MTDC system. It controls the DC voltage very fast and with small or without overshoot. Afterward, a static state feedback H¥ control is applied to the system which minimizes the voltage deviation after a disturbance and keeps the injected power of the terminals within the limits. Finally, some case studies are presented and the effectiveness of the proposed methods are shown. All simulations have been done in MATLAB and SIMULINK.