Electromagnetic simulation and design of etched diffraction grating demultiplexers
Sammanfattning: Among various planar lightwave circuits for multiplexing/demultiplexing in an optical communication system, etched diffraction gratings (EDGs) have shown great potential due to their compactness and high spectral finesse. Conventional numerical methods for grating simulation cannot be used to simulate an EDG demultiplexer of large size (in terms of the wavelength). In the present thesis, the polarization-dependent characteristics of an EDG demultiplexer are analyzed with a boundary element method (BEM) for both an echelle grating coated with a metal and a dielectric grating with total internal reflection (TIR) facets. For EDGs with metal-coated facets, we use a more effective method, namely, method of moments (MoM). Futhermore, a fast simulation method for EDGs with TIR facets is presented based on the Kirchhoff–Huygens principle and the Goos-Hänchen shift. This simple method has a good agreement with a BEM over a wide range of practical parameters of the device.Several novel designs are presented in order to improve the performances of EDGs. (1) By making some appropriate roughness on the surface of the shaded facets, the PDL of the demultiplexer can be effectively reduced over a large bandwith. (2) For EDGs based on Si nanowire structures, we compensate the polarization-dependent wavelength dispersion (PD?) in the whole operational spectrum by introducing a polarization compensation area in its free propagation region. (3) An EDG demultiplexer with suppressed sidelobe is designed. The designed EDG demultiplexer can give a crosstalk as small as 50 dB in theory. (4) By chirping the diffraction order for each facet, we minimize the envelope intensity for the other adjacent diffraction orders to achieve a negligible return loss in a large spectral width. (5) A design for EDG demultiplexers is presented to obtain both large grating facets and a larger free spectral range (FSR) using the optimal chirped diffraction orders for different facets.The influences of the fabrication errors (e.g., rounded effect, surface roughness and point defect in the waveguide) on the performance (such as the insertion loss, the polarization dependent loss and the chromatic dispersion) of an EDG demultiplexer are also analyzed in detail.Silicon nanowire waveguides and related EDGs are studied. An EDG demultiplexer with 10 nm spacing is finally fabricated and characterized.
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