Arsenic Influences Virus Replication in Experimental Coxsackievirus B3 Infection
Sammanfattning: Trace elements are essential for the host defence against infections, and during common infections, the balance of trace elements is changed in serum and tissues. Supplementation with selenium (Se), an essential trace element, is known to decrease the severity of coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) infection in mice. Even the non-essential trace element arsenic (As) seems to influence the replication of some viruses.During the course of an acute CVB3 infection in mice, Se concentrations decreased in most tissues and were negatively correlated to viral load in our study. However, As concomitantly decreased in most tissues. As has previously been shown to interfere with the balance of essential trace elements. However, in the present study As supplementation in healthy mice resulted in minor effects on seven studied trace elements in serum and tissues. The effects of As supplementation were more pronounced in CVB3-infected mice, with an increase in As, but a decrease in Se in most tissues when compared with non-infected mice.As supplementation during CVB3 infection in mice decreased viral RNA concentrations in the brain (97%) and pancreas (75%), two of the target organs of this infection. In vitro experiments indicate that As caused an impaired virion assembly or release. In vivo, infection-induced expression of the host defence-associated genes nuclear factor κB (NFκB) and interferon γ (IFN-γ) were unaffected by As supplementation, except for an earlier increase in IFN-γ in the brain.In conclusion, a clinically relevant dose of As decreased the replication of CVB3 in vitro and in vivo. This antiviral effect in vivo was not related to changes in specific trace elements or in the host’s immune-mediated defence. Although the mechanism underlying the observed effect on viral replication remains to be further elucidated, As seems to be an intriguing trace element to study in the pursuit of new antiviral drugs.
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