Chemical reactions in ventilation systems Ozonolysis of monoterpenes
Sammanfattning: Chemicals in indoor air, either emitted from a source or from a reaction, have been suggested to cause ill health in buildings. However, no clear correlations between exposure and health effects have been made.In this thesis we studied the reaction between monoterpenes, a group of biogenic unsaturated C10 hydrocarbons, and ozone. Ozonolysis of monoterpenes was used as model reactions for unsaturated compounds in ambient air. Also the products formed from these reactions have been suggested as important participants in the occurrence of discomfort and ill health in buildings.To enable a reliable and sensitive measurement of ppb-ppt levels of monoterpenes and the formed products in the presence of ozone an evaluation of available scrubber materials was made. Potassium iodide was shown to remove ambient levels of ozone and have a recovery of >95% for all monoterpenes and formed products included in the investigation.Experimental conditions showed to have a large impact on the initial steps of the ozonolysis, and also on the composition of the formed products. We showed that water plays an important and complex role both in the initial stage of ozonolysis of ?3-carene and in the formation and composition of products from the ozonolysis of ?-pinene. The use of experimental design facilitated the evaluation of the investigated reactions. We showed that the formation of OH radicals could be studied using multiple linear regression models and that the presence or absence of OH radicals had a profound impact on the formation of many of the formed products. We also made an observation of the lack of formed OH radicals in the ozonolysis of limonene and discussed probable causes of this observation.Despite the short reaction times and the ambient levels of ozone and monoterpenes used in our experiments we showed that a number of oxidation products were formed, and that the reaction rate is significantly increased in a ventilation system. This formation is underestimated by theoretical calculations and leads to high amounts of known irritants in the indoor air. We showed that theoretical calculations underestimate the formation of these oxidation products 3-13 times, depending on ventilation system and monoterpene.
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