Chloromethane Complexation by Cryptophanes : Host-Guest Chemistry Investigated by NMR and Quantum Chemical Calculations

Sammanfattning: Host–guest complexes are widely investigated because of their importance in many industrial applications. The investigation of their physico–chemical properties helps understanding the inclusion phenomenon. The hosts investigated in this work are cryptophane molecules possessing a hydrophobic cavity. They can encapsulate small organic guests such as halo–methanes (CH2Cl2, CHCl3). The encapsulation process was investigated from both the guest and the host point of view. With the help of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), the kinetics of complex formation was determined. The information was further used to obtain the activation energies of the processes. Having done this on five different cryptophanes, it is possible to relate the energies to structural differences between the hosts. Via the dipolar interaction between the guest’s and host’s protons, one can get information on the orientation of the guest inside the cavity. Moreover, the dynamics of the guest can be further investigated by its relaxation properties. This revealed restricted motion of the guest inside the host cavity. Not only the nature of the guest plays an important role. The host is also changing its properties upon encapsulation. All the cryptophanes investigated here can exchange rapidly between many conformers. These conformers have different–sized cavities. Quantum chemical optimization of the structure of the conformers makes volume estimation possible. Not only the cavity volumes, but also the quantum-chemically obtained energies and the calculated chemical shifts of the carbon–13 atoms can be helpful to follow the changes of the host upon complex formation. The host cannot be considered as a rigid entity. Analysis of variable temperature proton and carbon-13 spectra shows that the encapsulation can be considered as a mixture of conformational selection and induced fit. The structures of the formed complexes are further investigated by means of two-dimensional nuclear Overhauser spectroscopy (NOESY). The complex formation, its kinetics and thermodynamics are found to be a complicated function of structure elements of the host, the cavity size and the guest size and properties.