Postoperative recovery development of a multi-dimensional questionnaire for assessment of Recovery
Sammanfattning: This thesis aims to present a multi-dimensional instrument for self-assessment of progress in postoperative recovery. The author employs different research paradigms and methodologies to achieve this aim.Walker and Avant’s approach to concept analysis was used to examine the basic elements of postoperative recovery (Study I). The analysis identified different recovery dimensions and developed a theoretical definition showing postoperative recovery to be an energy-requiring process of returning to normality and wholeness, defined by comparative standards.Fourteen patients and 28 staff members participated in individual and focus group interviews aimed at describing patient and staff experiences of patient recovery (Study II). The essence of the postoperative recovery process was described as a desire to decrease unpleasant physical symptoms, reach a level of emotional wellbeing, regain functions, and re-establish activities.In Study III, 5 dimensions and 19 items were identified as a part of the operationalization process of the concept postoperative recovery. Fifteen staff members and 16 patients participated in the evaluation of content validity. On average, 85% of the participants considered the items as essential to the recovery process. In a test run of the questionnaire, 14 of 15 patients considered the questionnaire to be easy to understand and easy to complete. Twenty-five patients participated in the evaluation of intra-patient reliability. Percentage agreement (PA), systematic disagreement (RP, RC), and individual variability (RV) between the two assessments were calculated. PA measures ranged from 72% to 100%. The observed disagreement could be explained mainly by systematic disagreement.In total, 158 patients participated in the evaluation of construct validity, the ability to discriminate between groups, and the investigation of important item variables (Study IV). A rank-based statistical method for evaluation of paired, ordered categorical data from rating scales was used to evaluate consistency between the assessments of the Postoperative Recovery Profile (PRP) questionnaire and a global recovery scale. The number of months needed by participants to be regarded as fully recovered was studied by means of recovery profiles displayed by the cumulative proportion of recovered participants over time. A ranking list based on the participant’s appraisal of the five most important item variables in the PRP questionnaire was compiled to illustrate the rank ordering of the items. In comparing the assessments from the PRP questionnaire and the global recovery scale, 7.6% of all possible pairs were disordered. Twelve months after discharge 73% in the orthopaedic group were regarded as fully recovered, compared to 51% of the participants in the abdominal group (95% CI: 6% to 40%). The pain variable appeared among the top five most important items on eight measurement occasions, of eight possible, in both study groups.In conclusion, the PRP questionnaire was developed and support was given for validity and reliability. The questionnaire enables one to evaluate progress in postoperative recovery.
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