Change detection in metal oxide gas sensor signals for open sampling systems
Sammanfattning: This thesis addresses the problem of detecting changes in the activity of a distant gas source from the response of an array of metal oxide (MOX) gas sensors deployed in an Open Sampling System (OSS). Changes can occur due to gas source activity such as a sudden alteration in concentration or due to exposure to a different compound. Applications such as gas-leak detection in mines or large-scale pollution monitoring can benefit from reliable change detection algorithms, especially where it is impractical to continuously store or transfer sensor readings, or where reliable calibration is difficult to achieve. Here, it is desirable to detect a change point indicating a significant event, e.g. presence of gas or a sudden change in concentration. The main challenges are turbulent dispersion of gas and the slow response and recovery times of MOX sensors. Due to these challenges, the gas sensor response exhibits fluctuations that interfere with the changes of interest.The contributions of this thesis are centred on developing change detection methods using MOX sensor responses. First, we apply the Generalized Likelihood Ratio algorithm (GLR), a commonly used method that does not make any a priori assumption about change events. Next, we propose TREFEX, a novel change point detection algorithm, which models the response of MOX sensors as a piecewise exponential signal and considers the junctions between consecutive exponentials as change points. We also propose the rTREFEX algorithm as an extension of TREFEX. The core idea behind rTREFEX is an attempt to improve the fitted exponentials of TREFEX by minimizing the number of exponentials even further.GLR, TREFEX and rTREFEX are evaluated for various MOX sensors and gas emission profiles. A sensor selection algorithm is then introduced and the change detection algorithms are evaluated with the selected sensor subsets. A comparison between the three proposed algorithms shows clearly superior performance of rTREFEX both in detection performance and in estimating the change time. Further, rTREFEX is evaluated in real-world experiments where data is gathered by a mobile robot. Finally, a gas dispersion simulation was developed which integrates OpenFOAM flow simulation and a filament-based gas propagation model to simulate gas dispersion for compressible flows with a realistic turbulence model.
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