Shape from shading, colour constancy, and deutan colour vision deficiencies
Sammanfattning: Four studies including ten experiments adresses interrelations between some major and classical issues in visual perception: 3-D perception, colour constancy, colour perception and colour vision deficiencies. The main experimental paradigm to investigate the issues is within that of simulated shape from shading. 3-D impressions are induced by projecting space-modulated illuminations onto flat surfaces (displays), varying the colours and layout of the displays and the colour and modulation of the illumination.Study I includes four experiments investigating three types of space- modulated illumination. All experiments confirmed earlier findings that chromatic colour and complex display layout with reflectance edges crossed by illumination edges enhances shape from shading.In Study II the impressions of shape from shading and real 3-D objects were compared between persons with deutan colour vision deficiencies and normals. As predicted, the deutans show fewer and less distinct 3-D impressions in situations with their specific "problem colours" red and green. They also show a generally lower tendency for 3-D impressions, interpreted as a generally weaker colour constancy.Study III presents the AMBEGUJAS phenomenon; a novel twofold ambiguous shape from shading situation, continuously alternating between two different 3-D impressions coupled with different colour attributions. One solution is of an object with two clear surface colours, the other one of an object with greyish (desaturated) colours in coloured illumination which means classical colour constancy. The phenomenon illustrates the visual processes of separating reflectance and illumination characteristics and may provide a useful experimental setting to study colour constancy.In Study IV the AMBEGUJAS phenomenon is found to be robust as to chromaticness and different luminance contrasts for both normals and deutans. However, the deutans show slower shifts between percepts and a less pronounced desaturation of colour, which indicates a weaker colour constancy.The studies add evidence to the contribution of colour to 3-D shape perception, validated in a novel way by the results on "colour-blinds". The AMBEGUJAS phenomenon provides further support that the factors affecting shape from shading and the deutans different impressions are to be understood with reference to colour constancy. The deutans different impressions compared to normals are remarkable per se, but probably with very limited implications to everyday life.
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