Cementitious properties of steelmaking slags
Sammanfattning: The present study is directed towards the use of steelmaking slags as raw material for sulphoaluminate belite cement (SAB). Another important objective was to characterise the cementitious properties of phases in ladle furnace slag (LFS) specifically the calcium aluminates. Mayenite (C12A7) is considered one of the most important calcium aluminate in LFS, and since comparatively limited data on the kinetic properties of this phase are available, it was decided to study C12A7 more closely with regard to both particle size and temperature sensitivity. The behaviour of high-temperature reactions of tested SAB mixtures was investigated using thermogravimetric analysis coupled with a quadrupole mass spectrometer. Mineralogical observations were carried out with x-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results proved that steelmaking slags have the potential to work as raw material, since sulphoaluminate (C4A3 S ) along with polymorphs of dicalcium silicate (C2S) and ferrite phase (C4AF) were detected after firing at 1200ºC in an air atmosphere. The hydration properties of the specimens were analysed through conduction calorimetry, and compressive strength of specimens hydrated for 2 and 28 days. The compressive strength was in accordance with that suggested in the literature for slow hardening SAB cement. Both mixtures tested behaved the same with regard to heat development as well as the amount of ettringite (AFt) formed during the first 24 hours of the hydration. The formation of AFt was characterised with both differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and XRD. The crystallographic distribution in LFS samples was quantified using Rietveldanalysis. Calorimetric studies were performed at 20, 25 and 30°C in order to calculate the activation energy of hydration and thereby to suggest a kinetic model for tested compositions within this temperature interval. In addition to heat of hydration, compressive strength tests were completed on mortar prisms of LFS, and LFS in a blend with ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) which hydrated for 2, 7 and 28 days. Both compositions reached acceptable early strengths, whereas, after 28 days hydration, the blend was superior to neat LFS. Related activation energy was according to the Avrami-Erofeev model determined to 58 kJ/mol for the LFS and 63 kJ/mol for the blend. Corresponding calorimetric studies at the same temperatures were performed on a fine and coarse size fraction (Fraction A and Fraction B) of a synthesised C12A7. The purity was confirmed by XRD, and the hydraulic behaviour was investigated in excess water with respect to the dissolution. The apparent activation energy was calculated to 33 and 79 kJ/mol, respectively, for Fractions A-B using the Avrami-Erofeev model. From the model, it was also concluded that the acceleration period can be ascribed to a phase-boundary controlled mechanism. The principal calcium aluminate hydrates obtained were C2AH8 and C2AH7.5, and it was further observed that C12A7 is accompanied by an anomalous setting behaviour much like monocalcium aluminate (CA), and that the decomposition of C2AH8 to C2AH7.5 develops more slowly with higher surface area, specifically at 20 and 30°C.
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