Modeling Neural Stem Cell and Glioma Biology

Detta är en avhandling från Uppsala : Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis

Sammanfattning: This thesis is focused on neural stem cell (NSC) and glioma biology. I discuss how NSCs interact with extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in the stem cell niche, and investigate the consequences of deregulated Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) signaling for embryonic NSCs in transgenic mice. Furthermore I present cell cultures of human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) that models human disease, taking into account the heterogeneity of GBM. Finally, interactions between brain tumors and mast cells are studied using the glioma cultures.In paper I, the importance of NSC interactions with the ECM in the stem cell niche during development is discussed. Contacts between NSCs and the ECM in the subventricular zone (SVZ) are emerging as important regulatory mechanisms. We show that early postnatal neural stem and progenitor cells (NSPC) attach to collagen I, and that the adhesion is explained by higher expression of collagen receptor integrins compared to adult NSPC. Further, blood vessels in the SVZ express collagen I, indicating a possible functional relationship.Growth factors, e.g. PDGF, regulate NSC proliferation and differentiation. Aberrant activation of growth factor signaling pathways also plays a role in brain tumor formation. Paper II demonstrates that transgenic mice expressing PDGF-B at high levels in embryonic NSCs displayed mild neurological defects but no hyperplasia or brain tumors. This suggests that a high level of PDGF is not sufficient to induce brain tumors from NSCs without further mutations.Paper III presents a novel panel of human glioma stem cell (GSC) lines from GBM that display NSC markers in vitro and form secondary orthotopic tumors in vivo. GBM has recently been categorized in molecular subclasses and we demonstrate, for the first time, that these subclasses can be retained in vitro by stem cell culture conditions. We have thus generated models for research and drug development aiming at a focused treatment depending on GBM subtype.Interactions with the immune system are integral parts of tumorigenesis. Mast cells are found in glioma and in paper IV we demonstrate that the grade-dependent infiltration of mast cells is in part mediated by macrophage migration inhibitory factor and phosphorylation of STAT5.