Idén om en skola för alla och specialpedagogisk organisering i praktiken
Sammanfattning: Based on the assumption that inclusive schools, sometimes put in terms of ‘schools for all’ – i.e. the quest to create and maintain everyone’s learning, participation and social development in school – is a somewhat challenging task to accomplish, this thesis turned to study the work done and efforts made in this field in some mainstream Swedish school settings. In this endeavor, situations involving students at risk of school failure formed a specific focus. The aim of the study was to identify and analyse what, in school, calls for special education and, what is of particular importance in this thesis, the special education measures taken by the teachers to handle such issues; i.e. how special education is being done. Data mainly consisting of special education narratives by classroom teachers and special educators were collected during visits to a total of five mainstream schools units – all inspired and guided by the idea of inclusive schools. In the analysis of the data, narrative tools alongside process theoretical concepts such as sensemaking, mindfulness and tool dropping were used. Since social rather than pure knowledge-related school difficulties appeared to be the main concern for the school units involved, teachers spend a lot of time trying to solve misunderstandings and social tension among their students. Unless dealt with, such situations seemed to jeopardize most of what is supposed to take place in classroom. Creating and maintaining really close mutual relations between the teachers concerned and every specific child involved in any situational school difficulty, appeared to be of utmost importance. By using the tools of dialogue and personal involvement, attentive teachers struggled to make sense of the situations and, above all, tried to comprehend the specific student’s point of view. In addition to this close teaching style, measures in terms of gap reducing, gap bridging and actions taken to widen and develop mutual understanding and acceptance amongst children were employed. Furthermore, teachers tried to prevent social school failures by repeatedly discussing human rights and values in class and, not least, by embracing the uniqueness of every child. Most of the respondents, strongly supported by their principals, viewed such work as a key issue in pursuit of inclusive schools.
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