I originalets tjänst : Om framställandet och bevarandet av kalkmåleri i svenska kyrkorum mellan 1850 och 1980
Sammanfattning: There are approximately 1300 completely or partially preserved medieval churches in Sweden. Many of these have remains of kalkmåleri (mural paintings at least partially created in lime) from the 12th throughout the 17th century. This dissertation discusses the enactments that formed the revival of this kalkmåleri between 1850 and 1980, with a focus on restoration and conservation. The decorative and monumental paintings that were created at the same time are also discussed. The study is divided into two sections: one concentrates on the mural paintings and the networks that made their (re-)enactment possible, and the second is a case study that examines kalkmåleri in four medieval churches; Vendel and Ed north of Stockholm, and Floda and Vadsbro south of Stockholm. To come close to the paintings, an eclectic methodology with analysis of written and depicted sources, interviews, and studies in situ of the paintings through mapping and analysis of taken samples was designed. The objectives were to investigate the formation of kalkmåleri as phenomena, significant concepts, and conservation practices throughout time and space. Theoretical inspiration was taken from Actor-Network-Theory, critical discourse analysis, and speculative realism. Throughout the study the kalkmåleri is thus seen to have agency. The weave of enactments stemming from different professions and thought collectives that formed the paintings was made visible by following the actors. Some of these enactments were analyzed: i.e. the aesthetic shaping of the room, as religious and iconographic images, historical documents, art, style, technical, or hybrid objects. The latter refers to conservation that did not entirely rely on science, humanist scholarship, craftsmanship, or artistic creativity. Thus conservation is seen as a hybrid activity. Three periods of conservation principles were explored: stylistic restoration, original conservation, and precautionary conservation, which were related to what was perceived as the authentic original. Furthermore some Swedish "traditions" are discussed: that no institute for technical studies of art was formed, the use of "Curman’s principles", restricted retouching from the 1960s onward, and the use of gomma pane for cleaning. Finally appendices are included containing terminology, an index of conservators, and a DVD with mapping, chemical analysis, and photographs.
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