Development of an Impinging Receiver for Solar Dish-Brayton Systems

Detta är en avhandling från Stockholm : KTH Royal Institute of Technology

Sammanfattning: A new receiver concept utilizing impinging jet cooling technology has been developed for a small scale solar dish-Brayton system. In a typical impinging receiver design, the jet nozzles are distributed evenly around the cylindrical absorber wall above the solar peak flux region for managing the temperature at an acceptable level. The absorbed solar irradiation is partially lost to the ambient by radiation and natural convection heat transfer, the major part is conducted through the wall and taken away by the impingement jets to drive a gas turbine. Since the thermal power requirement of a 5 kWe Compower® micro gas turbine (MGT) perfectly matches with the power collected by the EuroDish when the design Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI) input is 800 W/m2, the boundary conditions for the impinging receiver design in this work are based on the combination of the Compower®MGT and the EuroDish system.In order to quickly find feasible receiver geometries and impinging jet nozzle arrangements for achieving acceptable temperature level and temperature distributions on the absorber cavity wall, a novel inverse design method (IDM) has been developed based on a combination of a ray-tracing model and a heat transfer analytical model. In this design method, a heat transfer model of the absorber wall is used for analyzing the main heat transfer process between the cavity wall outer surface, the inner surface and the working fluid. A ray-tracing model is utilized for obtaining the solar radiative boundary conditions for the heat transfer model. Furthermore, the minimum stagnation heat transfer coefficient, the jet pitch and the maximum pressure drop governing equations are used for narrowing down the possible nozzle arrangements. Finally, the curves for the required total heat transfer coefficient distribution are obtained and compared with different selected impinging arrangements on the working fluid side, and candidate design configurations are obtained.Furthermore, a numerical conjugate heat transfer model combined with a ray-tracing model was developed validating the inverse design method and for studying the thermal performance of an impinging receiver in detail. With the help of the modified inverse design method and the numerical conjugate heat transfer model, two impinging receivers based on sintered α-SiC (SSiC) and stainless steel 253 MA material have been successfully designed. The detailed analyses show that for the 253 MA impinging receiver, the average air temperature at the outlet and the thermal efficiency can reach 1071.5 K and 82.7% at a DNI level of 800 W/m2 matching the system requirements well. Furthermore, the local temperature differences on the absorber can be reduced to 130 K and 149 K for two different DNI levels, which is a significant reduction and improvement compared with earlier published cavity receiver designs. The inverse design method has also been verified to be an efficient way in reducing the calculation costs during the design procedure.For the validation and demonstration of the receiver designs, a unique experimental facility was designed and constructed. The facility is a novel high flux solar simulator utilizing for the first time Fresnel lenses to concentrate the light of 12 commercial high power Xenon-arc lamps. Finally, a prototype of a 253 MA based impinging was experimentally studied with the help of the 84 kWe Fresnel lens based high flux solar simulator in KTH.