Protein complexes of the Escherichia coli cell envelope
Sammanfattning: The cell envelope of Escherichia coli, as for all living cells, is a magnificent semi-permeable membrane barrier that facilitates protection as well as enables fundamental contact with the exterior world. The envelope comprises a mixture of phospholipids, organized in two bilayers, which are stabilized by a rigid peptidoglycan layer. There are also a large number of proteins, which can be lipid-integrated or attached. Infact, it is anticipated that approximately 30-40% of the cellular proteome of E. coli could be associated with the envelope. These proteins are involved in the transport of small molecules and nutrients, the biogenesis of the envelope, metabolism, signaling, channeling and cellular movement and attachment.The focus of this thesis is to understand the cell envelope of E. coli by understanding the proteins it holds. Three main questions have been addressed: 1) Which proteins are present? 2) How do these proteins interact? 3) How are the interactions brought about? To answer these questions we have designed and optimized methods suitable for proteome-wide separation, visualization and characterization of membrane proteins and protein complexes. We present reference proteome and interactome maps of the envelope, which further our understanding of the assembly and composition of the cell envelope. In many instances our studies have provided a first step towards understanding protein function(s) and for carrying out meaningful biochemical and structural analysis. We have also developed parallel approaches, which have enabled us to dissect the assembly process for two specific membrane protein complexes, a homo-dimer of penicillin binding protein 5 and the respiratory oxidase cytochrome bo3. These studies have extended our understanding of the relationship between structure and function of protein complexes.
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