Informationsteknik och organisatorisk förändring - Teknik, organisation och produktivitet i svensk banksektor 1975-2003

Detta är en avhandling från Almqvist & Wiksell International P.O. Box 7634, SE?103 94 Stockholm, Sweden Phone: +46 (0)8 402 11 00, Fax: +46 (0)8 24 25 43 E-mail: [email protected]ibokhandeln.se

Sammanfattning: The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the relation between technological and organizational change in the Swedish banking sector from 1975 to 2003. Besides analyzing the changes in these two variables the effects of the interaction on productivity changes in the sector are examined. The use of the concept of complementarity as a basis for analyzing the interaction between technological and organizational changes means that a clear link between the transformation of information technology, and the transition from a Tayloristic to Post-Tayloristic model, is expected. The investigation of the development of computer technology in the Swedish banking sector establishes a move from main frame computers to client-server networks. However, the transition is not continuous, since three distinct investment waves are identified. During the first wave, 1972-1980, the on-line terminals were used to automate routine transactions performed by the employees. The second wave, 1985-1985, included the installations of terminal systems in all the large banks, which increased the access to information and information processing software. Furthermore, the banks conducted massive investments in self-service systems, such as networks of ATMs and telephone banking. During the third wave, 1995-1999, the internal access to information was increased further with the introduction of client-server networks and the strengthening of the self-service strategy through the introduction of internet banking. Turning to the organizational developments, no evidence of de-skilling could be identified during the first wave of investments. The reason was the organizational changes which were implemented in order to counteract the routinizing effects induced by the introduction of the on-line terminals. Instead, the data shows a continuous rise in skills as well as a transition towards flat organizations in the Swedish banking sector during the entire period of study. These trends were reinforced by the increased specialization during the second half of the 1990s, which, in turn, were a result of the increased demand for complex financial services and the transfer of routine transaction to the clients with the introduction of internet banking. It is notoriously difficult to measure productivity in the financial sector, which is the main reason for construction three different indicators. Two of these measure the development of technical efficiency, while the third is an indicator of changes in economic efficiency. The technical efficiency decreased during 1975-1985, while the economic efficiency showed an increase. The main reason was the heavy regulation of the banking industry during this period. However, there was an increase in all indicators during the period of deregulation between 1985 and 1990. The data for the following period, 1990-1995 is hard to interpret due to the severity of the banking crisis in the beginning of the 1990s. During the last period, 1995-2003, the development was divergent, with a rapid increase in technical efficiency and a decrease in economic efficiency. The thesis also includes a thorough description of the institutional and structural changes in the financial markets of Sweden during 1975-2003.

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