Topics in Analysis and Computation of Linear Wave Propagation

Detta är en avhandling från Stockholm : KTH

Sammanfattning: This thesis concerns the analysis and numerical simulation of wave propagation problems described by systems of linear hyperbolic partial differential equations.A major challenge in wave propagation problems is numerical simulation of high frequency waves. When the wavelength is very small compared to the overall size of the computational domain, we encounter a multiscale problem. Examples include the forward and the inverse seismic wave propagation, radiation and scattering problems in computational electromagnetics and underwater acoustics. In direct numerical simulations, the accuracy of the approximate solution is determined by the number of grid points or elements per wavelength. The computational cost to maintain constant accuracy grows algebraically with the frequency, and for sufficiently high frequency, direct numerical simulations are no longer feasible. Other numerical methods are therefore needed. Asymptotic methods, for instance, are good approximations for very high frequency waves. They are based on constructing asymptotic expansions of the solution. The accuracy increases with increasing frequency for a fixed computational cost. Most asymptotic techniques rely on geometrical optics equations with frequency independent unknowns. There are however two deficiencies in the geometrical optics solution. First, it does not include diffraction effects. Secondly, it breaks down at caustics. Geometrical theory of diffraction provides a technique for adding diffraction effects to the geometrical optics approximation by introducing diffracted rays. In papers 1 and 2 we present a numerical algorithm for computing an important type of diffracted rays known as creeping rays. Another asymptotic model which is valid also at caustics is based on Gaussian beams. In papers 3 and 4, we present an error analysis of Gaussian beams approximation and develop a new numerical algorithm for computing Gaussian beams, respectively.Another challenge in computation of wave propagation problems arises when the system of equations consists of second order hyperbolic equations involving mixed space-time derivatives. Examples include the harmonic formulation of Einstein’s equations and wave equations governing elasticity and acoustics. The classic computational treatment of such second order hyperbolic systems has been based on reducing the systems to first order differential forms. This treatment has however the disadvantage of introducing auxiliary variables with their associated constraints and boundary conditions. In paper 5, we treat the problem in the second order differential form, which has advantages for both computational efficiency and accuracy over the first order formulation.Finally, paper 6 concerns the concept of well-posedness for a class of linear hyperbolic initial boundary value problems which are not boundary stable. The well-posedness is well established for boundary stable hyperbolic systems for which we can obtain sharp estimates of the solution including estimates at boundaries. There are, however, problems which are not boundary stable but are well-posed in a weaker sense, i.e., the problems for which an energy estimate can be obtained in the interior of the domain but not on the boundaries. We analyze a model problem of this type. Possible applications arise in elastic wave equations and Maxwell’s equations describing glancing and surface waves.