Earth satellites and air and ground-based activities
Sammanfattning: This thesis, Earth satellites and detection of air andground based activities by Ulf Ekblad of the Physics departmentat the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), addresses theproblem of detecting military activities in imagery. Examplesof various techniques are presented. In particular, problemsassociated with "novelties" and "changes" in an image arediscussed and various algorithms presented. The imagery usedincludes satellite imagery, aircraft imagery, and photos offlying aircraft.The timely delivery of satellite imagery is limited by thelaws of celestial mechanics. This and other information aspectsof imagery are treated. It is e.g. shown that dozens ofsatellites may be needed if daily observations of a specificsite on Earth are to be conducted from low Earth orbit.New findings from bioinformatics and studies of small mammalvisual systems are used. The Intersecting Cortical Model (ICM),which is a reduced variant of the Pulse-Coupled Neural Network(PCNN), is used on various problems among which are changedetection. Still much more could be learnt from biologicalsystems with respect to pre- and post-processing as well asintermediate processing stages.Simulated satellite imagery is used for determining theresolution limit for detection of tanks. The necessary pixelsize is shown to be around 6 m under the conditions of thissimulation.Difference techniques are also tested on Landsat satelliteimagery with the purpose of detecting underground nuclearexplosions. In particular, it is shown that this can easily bedone with 30 m resolution images, at least in the case studied.Satellite imagery from SPOT is used for detecting undergroundnuclear explosions prior to the detonations, i.e. under certainconditions 10 m resolution images can be used to detectpreparations of underground nuclear explosions. This type ofinformation is important for ensuring the compliance of nucleartest ban treaties. Furthermore, the necessity for havingcomplementary information in order to be able to interpretimages is also shown.Keywords: Remote sensing, reconnaissance, sensor,information acquisition, satellite imagery, image processing,image analysis, change detection, pixel difference, neuronnetwork, cortex model, PCNN, ICM, entanglement, Earthobservation, nuclear explosion, SPOT, Landsat, verification,orbit.
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