När medeltidens sol gått ned : debatten om byggnadsvård i England, Frankrike och Tyskland 1815-1914

Detta är en avhandling från Stockholm : Kungl. Vitterhets-, historie- och antikvitetsakad

Sammanfattning: In the 19th and early 20th centuries, most medieval buildings of importance were repaired, reconstructed or rebuilt according to a number of different theories. Those theories, their origin, development, and transformation within different schools are studied. Their relationship to cultural, political and religious circumstances, and to the question of whether the period had a distinct style of its own, is discussed. This thesis proves that the formation of principles culminated in the 1840s in all the countries concerned, in connection with extensive restoration enterprises. The fundamental rules, drafted as early as the 18th century, were developed along two lines, an antiquarian-orientated theory which sought to preserve buildings in the condition which time had bestowed on them, and the norms of unity of style which aimed at restoring monuments to their former glory. Both lines emerged so early that they must be considered to be independent courses, not the one an answer to the other. The antiquarian view was often advocated by personalities in literature and general culture, the unity of style by architects. A restoration rhetoric developed about restraint and respect for what was genuine, at the same time as the architects took more and more liberties. The restoration movement was united with the Romantic and neo-Gothic currents and consequently of international character. The arguments wandered across the borders, and the parties involved corresponded, contributed to each other’s periodicals and visited each other. A limited number of arguments were repeated over a long period of time. Some were associated with a certain school, others turned up in different camps. Few of the best-known old texts about the care of monuments broke new ground: the real pioneers were in many cases less well known, and are introduced in this survey.