Closed-die forging and slab hot rolling with focus on material yield : some industrial problems analysed by FEM
Sammanfattning: The thesis is focussed on improving the material yield in closed-die forging and rolling. The former is restricted to the manufacturing of heavy crown wheels and front axle beams and the latter to the hot rolling of steel slabs. To enhance the yield the commercial FE-codes Form2D and Dyna3D are used. Results from forging simulations are strengthened by full scale experiments. The research is carried out in near contact with the Swedish steel and engineering industry. In closed die forging, two bulk forming problems are treated: How to improve the tool design and how to change the pre-form geometry for decreasing the amount of material exiting the flash gap? In slab rolling, two problems related to material defects are considered: How to eliminate existing surface cracks and how to prevent the formation of voids around macro-inclusions embedded in the steel matrix? Internal voids might be the reason for scrapping the whole workpiece.Considering the forging of crown wheels, a new concept is proposed. For making the central hole of the product, the traditional method was forging a thin circular plate which was then sheared off and scrapped. Using the new technique this operation is replaced by forging a conical tap in the centre, which is then discarded. Doing so, the inner scrap material decreased with about 15%. The idea has been used in production for seven years. – Regarding the forging of front axle beams, a quasi-3D method is used comprising full scale measurements of the axial material flow. Here the theoretical material yield increased 2-7%.Regarding rolling, the initial surface cracks in the simulations are V-shaped with a crack angle of 6o and of depth 5-20 mm. The inclusions are cylindrical and either three times harder or three times softer than the matrix. The behaviour of the cracks and the inclusions are studied as influenced by process parameters. Current industrial input data are used as a reference. – It is concluded that longitudinal cracks cannot be totally eliminated. During rolling their V-shape gradually changes to Y-shape and a remaining oxide flake separates the crack bottom surfaces. For minimizing the detrimental influence of the entrapped oxide, an early closure of the crack bottom is important. Throughout the remaining rolling schedule the entrapped oxide is then torn to pieces with large areas of virgin metal in between ensuring a strong bond. The following recommendations are given for the longitudinal cracks: Light drafts/pass at the beginning of the rolling schedule followed by heavy ones. – Contradictory to longitudinal cracks it is concluded that transversal cracks are possible to eliminate. When eliminated, the initial bottom of the crack coincides with the slab surface. No folds are formed. For the transversal cracks light drafts/pass are proposed together with reversal rolling, the latter for avoiding crack folding. – Voids are easiest formed around hard macro-inclusions in the centre of the slab. Large rolls and heavy drafts are recommended to avoid this.
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