Insulin Resistance and Inflammation as Risk Factors for Congestive Heart Failure

Detta är en avhandling från Uppsala : Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis

Sammanfattning: Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality and the identification of modifiable risk factors is crucial in order to diminish suffering of this common disease. The primary aim of this thesis was to investigate novel metabolic risk factors for CHF, with a focus on insulin resistance and inflammation. The secondary aim was to examine the validity of the CHF diagnosis in the Swedish hospital discharge register.This thesis was based on the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men (ULSAM) cohort, a community-based prospective study started in 1970. The participants were examined at age 50 and 70 and the data was completed with annual updates on mortality and in-hospital morbidity using national registers. We showed that insulin resistance predicts CHF incidence independently of established risk factors in both middle-aged and elderly men. The previously described association between obesity and subsequent CHF may be mediated partly by insulin resistance. Moreover, it was established that inflammation, measured as erythrocyte sedimentation rate is a significant predictor of CHF, independent of established risk factors including an interim myocardial infarction. Furthermore, a low beta-carotene level, as well as an increased apolipoprotein B/A-I-ratio was found to predict CHF independently of established risk factors.We also showed that the validity of the CHF diagnosis in the Swedish hospital discharge register appears less precise than for other recently investigated cardiovascular diagnoses. However, when including only cases from selected clinics or cases with a primary diagnosis of CHF, the validity is comparable to the above diagnoses. In conclusion, insulin resistance and inflammation are strong independent risk factors for the development of CHF, and seem to be involved in the early process leading to CHF. If confirmed, our observations could have large clinical implications as they may offer new approaches in the prevention of CHF.