Reactive control and coordination of redundant robotic systems

Detta är en avhandling från Stockholm : KTH Royal Institute of Technology

Sammanfattning: Redundant robotic systems, in terms of manipulators with one or twoarms, mobile manipulators, and multi-agent systems, have received an in-creasing amount of attention in recent years. In this thesis we describe severalways to improve robotic system performance by exploiting the redundancy.As the robot workspace becomes increasingly dynamic, it is common towork with imperfect geometric models of the robots or its workspace. Inorder to control the robot in a robust way in the presence of geometric uncer-tainties, we propose to assess the stability of our controller with respect to acertain task by deriving bounds on the geometric uncertainties. Preliminaryexperimental results support the fact that stability is ensured if the proposedbounds on the geometric uncertainties are fulfilled.As a non-contact measurement, computer vision could provide rich infor-mation for robot control. We introduce a two step method that transformsthe position-based visual servoing problem into a quadratic optimization prob-lem with linear constraints. This method is optimal in terms of minimizinggeodesic distance and allows us to integrate constraints, e.g. visibility con-straints, in a natural way.In the case of a single robot with redundant degrees of freedom, we canspecify a family of complex robotic tasks using constraint based programming(CBP). CBP allows us to represent robotic tasks with a set of equality andinequality constraints. Using these constraints we can formulate quadraticprogramming problems that exploit the redundancy of the robot and itera-tively resolve the trade-off between the different constraints. For example, wecould improve the velocity or force transmission ratios along a task-dependent direction using the priorities between different constraints in real time.Using the reactiveness of CBP, we formulated and implemented a dual-armpan cleaning task. If we mount a dual-arm robot on a mobile base, we proposeto use a virtual kinematic chain to specify the coordination between the mobilebase and two arms. Using the modularity of the CBP, we can integrate themobility and dual-arm manipulation by adding coordination constraints intoan optimization problem where dual-arm manipulation constraints are alreadyspecified. We also found that the reactiveness and modularity of the CBPapproach is important in the context of teleoperation. Inspired by the 3Ddesign community, we proposed a teleoperation interface control mode thatis identical to the ones being used to locally navigate the virtual viewpoint ofmost Computer Aided Design (CAD) softwares.In the case of multiple robots, we combine ideas from multi-agent coopera-tive coverage control, with problem formulations from the resource allocationfield, to create a distributed convergent approach to the resource positioningproblem.