Design and synthesis of aspartyl protease inhibitors Targeting HIV-1 and malaria plasmepsin I and II
Sammanfattning: Aspartyl proteases can generally be inhibited by peptide mimics containing an uncleavable peptide bond isostere at the proposed cleavage site. One such peptide bond isostere is the hydroxyethylamine moiety, which in this thesis has successfully been incorporated in potential inhibitors of the HIV-1-protease as well as the malarial proteases plasmepsin I and II.The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has during the last 20 years given rise to a new fast-spread epidemic. The virus protease is one of the foremost targets for drug intervention. In an attempt to improve an earlier design, a P1'-anthranilic acid was exchanged for all four isomers of 2-aminocyclopentanecarboxylic acid, which were synthesized from racemic starting materials, the trans isomers via a novel synthetic route. None of the isomers enhanced potency as compared to the anthranilic acid.Because of increasing development of resistance, the pharmaceutical intervention with malaria is becoming rapidly more difficult. A prominent new target for drug research is the hemoglobin degradation pathway. Two of the many proteases involved in this pathway are plasmepsin I and II. Two series of peptide mimics with the hydroxyethylamine were prepared and tested against these enzymes as well as against the similar human protease cathepsin D.In the first series the central nitrogen of the target compounds is a secondary amine, derived from natural and unnatural amino acids, the side-chain of which was to bind in the S1'-site of the proteases. It was found that para-aryl substituted phenylalanines resulted in the most active inhibitors. While the P1- and P2-side-chains were kept constant at benzyl and isopropyl respectively, the P3 capping carboxylic acid was varied with a set of diverse carboxylic acids. It was found that many of the carboxylic acids were acceptable.A selection of compounds was tested for inhibition of parasite growth in infected human erythrocytes and found to be active.In the target compounds of the second series the P1'-side-chain was moved from the ?-carbon of the initial amino acids to the adjacent nitrogen, thus rendering this a tertiary amine. The SAR of these compounds suggests that this side-chain cannot be larger than benzyl, which is in sharp contrast to the first series, where both isomers of phenylalanine (i.e. a benzyl group on the ?-carbon) render inactive compounds.Most of the compounds show a good degree of selectivity for the plasmepsins over cathepsin D, even though a few good inhibitors of the human enzyme could be identified also.
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