Adhesive Joints in Timber Engineering. Modelling and Testing of Fracture Properties

Detta är en avhandling från Division of Structural Mechanics, Lund University, PO Box 118, SE-221 00, LUND, Sweden

Sammanfattning: This thesis, which is a compilation of seven papers, concerns the mechanical testing, numerical analysis and constitutive modelling of wood-adhesive bonds in timber engineering. Applications such as finger-joints, glued-laminated timber and glued-in rods are considered. The experimental studies include the testing of the fracture characteristics of wood-adhesive bonds, including both wood-to-wood bonds and glued-in rods of either steel or glass fibre reinforced polyester. The numerical studies relate to the strength of finger-joints, laminated beams and glued-in rods for timber structures. In the experimental studies, the complete stress-displacement response of small specimens, particularly their fracture softening behaviour beyond peak stress, was recorded. A major outcome from the experiments is that wood-adhesive bonds can behave in a fracture-softening manner, and that it is possible to record this under stable conditions. In one of the numerical studies the finite element method was employed to analyse the stress distribution around zones of low stiffness in a laminated beam. A fracture mechanics analysis was also performed of the delamination of a laminated beam. The results show that the often made assumption of a stress redistribution taking place around weak zones is not necessarily true. Another finding is that the delamination of an initially cracked glulam beam tends to be increasingly dominated by mode II failure as the lamination thickness decreases. In another study, also related to finger-joints and laminated beams, the finger-joint failure in a glulam beam was simulated using a nonlinear fictitious crack model with stochastic properties. The results show the proposed approach to be able to account for such phenomena as the size effect and the laminating effect. Another observation is that finger-joint fracture energy, i.e. the ductility, has a major influence on lamination and beam strength. The influence of bondline defects on the tensile strength of a finger-joint was also investigated. It was demonstrated that even a small defect in the form of a glueline void, can have a relatively strong influence on the tensile strength. It was also demonstrated that the strength of finger-joints is largely influenced by the outermost finger. A nonlinear 3D finite element model was employed in a parameter study of glued-in rods in timber structures, a strain-softening model being used to characterise the adhesive layer. Parameter studies in relation both to the fracture energy and the geometrical parameters and to loading conditions were performed. The results show that the fracture energy is of major importance for the pull-out load capacity, that the model in question can be used to predict size effects and that loading in a pull-compression manner results in lower load-bearing capacities than loading in a pull-pull manner. Finally, an interface model based on damage mechanics is suggested for the modelling of wood-adhesive interfaces. This model accounts for joint dilatation and post-cracking friction. Also, a homogenisation scheme is presented for combining the proposed model with ordinary plasticity models for the adhesive bulk. This homogenisation procedure is based on assumptions regarding the stress and strain gradients typical of thin bondlines.

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