Discrete element simulation of elasto-plastic shock waves in high-velocity compaction
Sammanfattning: Elasto-plastic shock waves in high-velocity compaction of spherical metal particles are the focus of this thesis which consists of four papers (A-D). The compaction process is modeled by a discrete element method while using elastic and plastic loading, elastic unloading and adhesion at contacts. Paper A investigates the dynamic compaction of a one-dimensional chain of homogenous particles. The development of the elasto-plastic shock waves, its propagation and influence on the compaction process are examined. Simulations yield information on the contact behavior, velocity of the particle and its deformation during dynamic compaction. Effects of changing loading parameters on the compaction process are also discussed. Paper B addresses the non-homogeneity in a chain having; particles of different sizes and materials, voids between the particles and particles with/without adhesion between them. Simulations show transmission and reflection of elasto-plastic shock wave during compaction process. The particle deformation during incident and reflected shocks and particle velocity fluctuations due to voids between particles are simulated. The effects of adhesion on particles separation during unloading stage are also discussed. Paper C develops a simulation model for a high-velocity compaction process with auxiliary pistons, known as relaxation assists, in a compaction assembly. The simulation results reveals that the relaxation assists offer; smooth compaction during loading stage, prevention of the particle separation during unloading stage and conversion of higher kinetic energy of hammer into particles deformation. Furthermore, the influence of various loading elements on compaction process is investigates. These results support the findings of experimental work. Paper D further extends the one-dimensional case of Paper A and B into two-dimensional assembly of particles while adding friction between particles and between particles and container walls. Three particular cases are investigated including closely packed hexagonal, loosely packed random and a non-homogenous assembly of particles of various sizes and materials. Consistent with the one-dimensional case, primary interest is the linking of particle deformation with the elasto-plastic shock wave propagation. Simulations yield information on particle deformation during shock propagation and change in overall particles compaction with the velocity of the hammer. The force exerted by particles on the container walls and rearrangement of the loosely packed particles during dynamic loading are also investigated. Finally, the effects of presence of friction and adhesion on both overall particles deformation and compaction process are simulated.
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