Hazard screening of contaminated sites bioavailable fractions and biological in vitro tools
Sammanfattning: The environmental bioavailability of contaminants, rather than their total concentrations in the soil compartment play a decisive role for the risks associated with contaminated sites. Various soil constituents and abiotic conditions have strong influence on bioavailability, which may vary substantially between different locations. It is therefore necessary to site-specifically use tools that reflect the fractions of contaminants that are available to biota and pose the highest potential environmental risks. Bioassays provide integrated toxic responses which include effects from unknown contaminants or combinatory toxic effects from mixtures of contaminants. Thus, biological effect data greatly contribute to establish more realistic exposure and risk-scenarios at contaminated sites.The work underlying this thesis presents possible techniques for high capacity screening for site-specific hazards at contaminated areas. By combining rapid water extractions and cell-based in vitro designs measures of the toxic potential in soils was obtained. Toxicologically bioavailable fractions of mixed metal pollution, including arsenic, were primarily investigated in this thesis. In two of the studies, environmental availability and toxicological bioavailability of arsenic was explored in CCA-contaminated soils. Application of cell-based in vitro screening techniques was also conducted at a metal contaminated industrial site to obtain spatial distribution of toxicity. Multivariate association techniques were employed in the interpretation of environmental exposure and cytotoxicity data.It was shown that cell-based in vitro systems for both basal cytotoxicity and specific end-points targeting arsenic could assess the toxic potential from extracts obtained by several water-based extraction techniques including Pressurised Liquid Extraction (PLE). The cell-based in vitro systems were found to add important information on the site-specific differences in arsenics genotoxic potential from CCA-contaminated soils. The results highlight the importance of taking speciation and toxicological bioavailability into account in the risk analysis, rather than to base risk estimates on total load of contaminants. The presented screening approach was successfully applied at a metal polluted industrial site where spatial distribution of toxicity was obtained. PLE extraction also provided means for combined toxicological and chemical screening of explosives in soils from live-fire training ranges. Multivariate association techniques highly facilitated the interpretation of complex environmental data. The PLE was found to be a rapid extraction technique that has sufficient environmental relevance to be used in environmental impact analyses. It was also concluded that other cell-based in vitro systems that target specific toxic effects have large potential for being used in screening for a variety of environmental chemicals.Keywords: Environmental availability, Environmental bioavailability, Toxicological bioavailability, mixture toxicity, hazard screening, contaminated soils, heavy metals, arsenic, CCA, explosives, soil extraction, water extracts, cell-based in vitro tests, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, PLE, MVDA, PCA, PLS.
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