Non-Formal Vocational Education and Training in Mozambique Contexts, policies, pedagogies and contradictions
Sammanfattning: Education and training in Mozambique are considered to be a ‘right’ and a ‘duty’ for all its citizens. Non-Formal Vocational Education and Training (NFVET) has been promoted to increase educational opportunities for more citizens, particularly the most vulnerable groups- the out of school and unemployed.The aim of this study is to gain a deeper insight into NFVET in Mozambique, explore its context and historical development, and to identify factors that could contribute to the improvement of this area of education. It is a qualitative, exploratory study carried out in Mozambique. Semi-structured interviews, focus group interviews, non-participant observations, analysis of both printed and electronic documents and life story narratives of research participants were used as methods of data collection. The theories and concepts of adult education and Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) constituted the theoretical framework of the study.The findings of the study reveal that NFVET is highly relevant in the context of change and development in Mozambique. This area of education plays an increasingly relevant role in helping people to continually improve their skills and contributes to their empowerment and social inclusion. However, contextual factors such as lack of resources, teachers’ poor professional competencies and weak linkages between the training programmes and the labour market constitute the main barriers for the attainment of the objectives of these programmes.The study concludes that framework and activities of NFVET need to be improved. This improvement includes strengthening existing policies, the need for the professionalisation of educators by enhancing their competencies and the improvement of their working conditions. Further, the development and provision of new curriculum and material taking into account the learners’ needs, the local context and the demands of the labour market are needed. The establishment of functional partnerships between NFVET providers and systematic participative evaluation of the training programmes are also suggested to ensure the quality and sustainability of the programmes.
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