Healthy Satiety Effects of Paleolithic diet on Satiety and Risk factors for Cardiovascular disease

Detta är en avhandling från Division of Family Medicine Department of Clinical Sciences Lund University Sweden

Sammanfattning: The prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) exhibits considerable variation across agrarian societies, whereas they are virtually absent in non-agrarian societies such as hunter-gatherer and horticultural societies. When looking for lifestyle factors which could promote CVD, it therefore seems logical to focus on the agrarian lifestyle and ways in which it departs from a non-agrarian lifestyle. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate the effect of a hunter-gatherer diet (also called Paleolithic diet) compared to agrarian diet in prevention of CVD. In paper I we reviewed evidence from epidemiology and evolutionary biology for a possible maladaptation of human satiety hormone leptin to agrarian diet. We found that leptin resistance hypothetically may be a sign of maladaptation to dietary cereals as staple food, and that lectins could be a cereal constituent with sufficient properties to cause leptin resistance. In paper II we experimentally studied the long-term effect of a Paleolithic diet compared to a cereal-based diet on risk factors for cardiovascular disease in domestic pigs. We found that a Paleolithic diet conferred higher insulin sensitivity, lower C-reactive protein and lower blood pressure than a cereal-based diet. In paper III and IV we experimentally studied the effect of a Paleolithic diet compared to a Mediterranean-like diet on risk factors for cardiovascular disease, satiety and leptin in individuals with ischaemic heart disease and either glucose intolerance or type 2 diabetes. Paper III showed that a Paleolithic diet improved glucose tolerance more than a Mediterranean-like diet, and paper IV showed that a Paleolithic diet was more satiating per calorie than a Mediterranean-like diet. In conclusion, we have found beneficial effects of a Paleolithic diet on risk factors for cardiovascular disease and satiety.