Combined Digital Holography and Speckle Correlation for Rapid Shape Evaluation
Sammanfattning: In manufacturing industry there is a high demand for on line quality control to minimize the risk of incorrectly produced objects. Conventional contact measurement methods are usually slow and invasive, meaning that they cannot be used for soft materials and for complex shapes without influencing the controlled parts. In contrast, interferometry and digital holography in combination with computers become faster, more reliable and highly accurate as an alternative non-contact technique for industrial shape evaluation. In digital holography, access to the complex wave field and the possibility to numerically reconstruct holograms in different planes introduce a new degree of flexibility to optical metrology. With digital holography high resolution and precise three dimensional (3D) images of the manufactured parts can be generated. This technique can also be used to capture data in a single exposure, which is important when doing measurements in a disturbed environment. The aim of this thesis is to perform online process control of free-form manufactured objects by measuring the shape and compare it to the CAD-model. To do this, a new technique to measure surface gradients and shape based on single-shot dual wavelength digital holography and image correlation of speckle displacements is demonstrated. Based on an analytical relation between phase gradients and speckle displacements it is shown that an object is retrieved uniquely to shape and position without the unwrapping problems that usually appear in dual wavelength holography. The method is first demonstrated using continues wave laser light from two temperature controlled laser diodes operating at 640 nm. Further a specially designed dual core diode pumped fiber laser that produces pulsed light with wavelengths close to 1030 nm is used. One significant problem when using the dual wavelength single-shot approach is that phase ambiguities are built in to the system that needs to be corrected. An automatic calibration scheme is therefore required. The intrinsic flexibility of digital holography gives a possibility to compensate these aberrations and to remove errors, fully numerically without mechanical movements. In this thesis I present a calibration method which allows single-shot online shape evaluation in a disturbed environment. It is shown that phase maps and speckle displacements can be recovered free of chromatic aberrations. This is the first time that a single-shot dual wavelength calibration is reported by defining a criteria to make an automatic procedure. By the results of the presented work, it is experimentally verified that the single-shot dual wavelength digital holography and numerically generated speckle images can be used together with digital speckle correlation to retrieve and evaluate the object shape. The proposed method is also robust to large phase gradients and large movements within the intensity patterns. The advantage of the approach is that, using speckle displacements, the shape measurement can be done even though the synthetic wavelength is out of the dynamic range of the height variation of the object.
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