Residual Stress Distributions in Additively Manufactured Parts : Effect of Build Orientation
Sammanfattning: Additive manufacturing (AM) of parts using a layer by layer approach has seen a rapid increase in application for production of net shape or near-net shape complex parts, especially in the field of aerospace, automotive, etc. Due to the superiority of manufacturing complex shapes with ease in comparison to the conventional methods, interest in these kinds of processes has increased. Among various methods in AM, laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) is one of the most widely used techniques to produce metallic components.As in all manufacturing processes, residual stress (RS) generation during manufacturing is a relevant issue for the AM process. RS in AM are generated due to a high thermal gradient between subsequent layers. The impact of residual stresses can be significant for the mechanical integrity of the built parts and understanding the generation of RS and the effect of AM process parameters is therefore important for a broader implementation of AM techniques. The work presented in this licentiate thesis aims to investigate the influence of build orientation on the RS distribution in AM parts. For this purpose, L-shaped Inconel 718 parts were printed by LPBF in three different orientations, 0°, 45°, and 90°, respectively. Inconel 718 was selected because it is a superalloy widely used for making gas turbine components. In addition, IN718 has in general good weldability which renders it a good material for additive manufacturing.Residual stress distributions in the parts removed from the build plate were measured using neutron diffraction technique. A simple finite element model was developed to predict the residual stresses and the effect of RS relaxation due to the separation of the parts and build plate. The trend of residual stress distribution predicted was in good agreement with experimental results. In general, compressive RS at the part center and tensile RS near the surface were found. However, while the part printed in 0° orientation had the least amount of RS in all three principal directions of part, the part built in 90° orientation possessed the highest amount of RS in both compression and tension. The study has shown that residual stress distributions in the parts are strongly dependent on the building process. Further, it has shown that the relaxation of RS associated with the removal of the parts from the build plate after printing has a great impact on the final distribution of residual stress in the parts. These results can be used as guidelines for choosing the orientations of the part during printing.
Denna avhandling är EVENTUELLT nedladdningsbar som PDF. Kolla denna länk för att se om den går att ladda ner.