The effect of stress state in ductile failure
Sammanfattning: The industrial application of high strength steels in structural components has increased the demand on understanding the ductile failure behavior of this type of materials. In practical situations the loading experienced on components made out of these materials can be very complex, which may affect the failure behavior.The objective of this work is to study the effect of stress state on ductile failure and the mechanisms leading to rupture in high strength steels. The stress state is characterized by the stress triaxiality T and the Lode parameter L, which is a deviatoric stress state parameter that discriminates between axisymmetric or shear dominated stress states. For this purpose experiments on two different specimen configurations are performed; a double notched tube (DNT) specimen tested in combined tension and shear and a round notched bar (RNB) specimen tested in uniaxial tension. The two specimens give rise to different stress states at failure in terms of T and L. The failure loci for the DNT specimen show an abrupt change in ductility, indicating a transition between the rupture mechanisms necking of intervoid ligaments and shearing of intervoid ligaments. A clear difference in ductility between the two specimen configurations is also observed, which is closely associated with the difference in stress state at failure.A micromechanical model is developed, which assumes that ductile material failure occurs when the deformation becomes highly non-linear and localizes into a band. The model, which is applied to analyze the experiments, consists of a band with a square array of equally sized cells, with a spherical void located in the center of each cell. The model, extended with a shear criterion, captures the experimental trend rather well. The model also shows that the effect of the deviatoric stress state (L) on void growth, void shape evolution and coalescence is significant, especially at low levels of T and shear dominated stress state.
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