Milk Fat Intake and Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) Supplementation : Dietary Markers and Associations to Clinical and Biochemical Characteristics
Sammanfattning: In the present thesis dietary markers for intake of milk fat, associations between intake of milk fat and risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD), and the effects of supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) to healthy humans are investigated.The dietary fat quality is one of the main lifestyle factors affecting risk for CHD. When studying the associations between diet and health it is important to have accurate dietary information. Objective dietary markers increase the possibilities to interpret dietary surveys.In a study of 62 men we demonstrated that the milk fatty acid pentadecanoic acid (15:0) measured in serum lipids can be used as marker for intake of fat from milk products. In the same study we observed inverse correlations between intake of milk fat and certain risk factors for CHD, especially anthropometric variables.To further investigate these findings we supplemented humans with CLA, naturally present in milk. CLA has in animals and in vitro been ascribed positive effects on adiposity and glucose and lipid metabolism. When supplementing humans with CLA we observed a slight decrease in body fat, but no effects on other anthropometric variables or serum lipids. However, markers of lipid peroxidation and inflammation increased. From a second supplementation study we concluded that CLA trans 10, cis 12 induced lipid peroxidation more than did a mixture of isomers.We conclude that the inverse associations between milk fat intake and CHD risk factors, and the effects of CLA, are interesting and need further investigation. However, according to current knowledge, the general population is still advised to have a limited intake of total and saturated fat and to instead choose unsaturated fats. In addition, there is to date no medical reasons for humans to take CLA as supplements.
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