Creation and destruction of in-cylinder flows Large eddy simulations of the intake and the compression strokes

Detta är en avhandling från Stockholm : KTH Royal Institute of Technology

Sammanfattning: The aim of this thesis is to increase engine efficiency by studying the flow structures created in an engine cylinder during the intake phase and the effect of the subsequent compression.The invention of the combustion engine has enabled three centuries of economic growth fueled by energy stored as hydrocarbons. However, during the latter part of the twentieth century negative consequences on health and environment of the combustion engine were observed. In order to reduce emissions without increasing fuel consumption, improved knowledge of all physical processes occurring in the engine are necessary. The aim of this thesis is to increase the understanding of the flow prior to combustion, which can lead to reduced engine emissions and fuel consumption.Intake flow structures are studied using large eddy simulations and experiments on a steady swirl test rig. Flow acceleration was observed to reduce the swirl coefficient, and higher swirl coefficient was found during valve closing as compared to during valve opening. This implies that the rotation is stronger during the later part of the intake then what has been previously assumed. In addition, the computations show that the volume above the valves has a profound effect on the swirl created during the intake. To take this into account a novel way of calculating the swirl number was suggested. This approach gives a lower swirl number as compared to the commonly used Thien methodology. The effects of compression are studied using simulations of predefined flow structures undergoing compression. The peak turbulence levels were found to be increasing with tumble number and decreasing with swirl. It was noted that compression increased the turbulent fluctuations in the cylinder axis leading to anisotropic turbulence and that a small tilt angle was observed to have a significant effect on swirl homogeneity at top dead center.  In this thesis, a new methodology was proposed and validated for calculation of in-cylinder turbulence for a flat piston.The results of the thesis enhance the understanding of the dynamic effects encountered during intake as well recognizing that a small tumble component has a strong effect on the flow structures prior to combustion. These results can be used to improve the simplified computational methods used to optimize the engine.