Immune Complex Regulated Cytokine Production in Rheumatic and Lymphoproliferative Diseases
Sammanfattning: Immune complexes (ICs) are produced during normal immune responses and facilitate clearance of foreign antigens. ICs not efficiently cleared from the circulation can cause tissue damage. This might happen if ICs are formed with autoantibodies and autoantigens. Well described effects of ICs are neutralization of antigen, classical complement activation or FcR-mediated phagocytosis, whereas cytokine inducing effects of ICs in human clinical settings are less well described. I have investigated cytokine-inducing properties in vitro of ICs from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and cryoglobulinemia in association with lymphoproliferative diseases.Cryoglobulin (CG)-induced cytokine production varied with changes in temperature and ionic strength in parallel to CG precipitation. IgG CG-induced cytokine production was also mediated via Fc?IIa on monocytes. Blockade of the complement system, resembling the in vivo situation of complement consumption in CG-associated diseases, increased IgG CG induced IL-10 and decreased TNF-? production. This represents hitherto not described mechanisms for CG-associated inflammation.ICs from SLE patients induced IL-10 and IL-6 production from PBMC cultures via Fc?RIIa. Occurrence of anti-SSA autoantibodies and signs of in vivo complement activation contributed to increased levels of circulating ICs in SLE patients, corresponding to increased amounts of IC-induced IL-10 in vitro. This represents a possible vicious cycle that might perpetuate antibody dependent pathology in SLE, and put anti-SSA in a new pathological context.RF-associated ICs from RA joints and ICs formed with antibodies against collagen type II from RA serum induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production from monocytes via Fc?RIIa, showing how specific autoantibodies might induce or perpetuate joint inflammation in RA.I have described how ICs can induce significant amounts of pathophysiologically important monocyte-derived cytokines in three major IC-dependent diseases. Blockade of Fc?RIIa and suppression of monocytes/macrophages might be a means of reducing pathogenic IC-induced cytokine production in these diseases.
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