Vad händer med dialogen? En studie av dialogisk interaktion mellan pedagog och barn i förskolan
Sammanfattning: The overall purpose of this study is to gain knowledge about dialogues in the setting of the preschool. The more in-depth purpose is to highlight what happens in dialogues between a teacher and a child when more children join the situation of interaction in which the dialogue is taking place. A further purpose is to attempt to understand what it is that influences change in the dialogue and what significance the actions of the teacher can have for this change. The study is based on several questions that concern interaction in preschools, who it is that initiates an increase in the number of participants in those situations that involve dialogue, and what happens with the dialogue when more children join and what causes the change in the dialogue.The study is based on video observations from a preschool; approximately 10 teachers and 50 children between the ages of one and six took part in the study. The situations that were observed and documented in video format were everyday activities (both indoor and outdoor) that were led at a nominal level by teachers. In total, 40 films were recorded. Film length was between one and 60 minutes. In 32 of the films, there was interaction between a teacher and several children, and 18 of these included dialogues between a teacher and several children. Dialogue is here given a specific significance and refers to the interaction that can be described in terms of presence, listening, reciprocity, and extending. This definition of dialogue derives from a combination of Martin Buber’s philosophy of dialogue and aspects of interaction that earlier research found to be significant for children’s learning. In two of the 18 films that showed dialogue, no other children became part of the situation of interaction; the remaining 16 films were transcribed; and both verbal and non-verbal events were made apparent in the transcriptions. Analyses of the recorded material and of the transcriptions were conducted using analytical terms borrowed from conversation analysis as well as the central term for this study dialogue. The results demonstrate a complex practice and also demonstrate that dialogues in the sense given in this study take place between children and teachers. Situations of interaction also occur where dialogues take place in which a number of children join. It can be the child joining the situation of interaction who takes the initiative to an increased number of participants; however, it can also be the teacher or the child in the dialogue. The initial address can take place during a moment of transition in the interaction or at the same time as another participant is talking. The dialogue often changes when more children join the situation where the dialogue is taking place. The dialogue can end completely or be interrupted and resume. The results further demonstrate that the dialogue can continue without seemingly being affected by the fact that more children join. This happens when the child joining and the teacher in the dialogue interact in a non-verbal manner at the same time as the teacher is talking with the child in the dialogue. The dialogue can also be continued with more participants. Who takes the initiative, how the initial address occurs, and which content is given focus by the different participants are all factors that seem to affect what happens to the dialogue. How the teacher acts when more children join also appears to be significant in terms of what happens with the dialogue when more children join. In those situations where the teacher begins talking with a number of children about different subjects, the interaction ceases to be dialogic. When the teacher asks the joining child to wait, the dialogue is both interrupted and resumed, and on those occasions when the dialogue continues with more participants, the teacher listens to the joining child and the participants take turns speaking.
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